The 4 Styles Of Parenting And Their Impact On Children
Over the years psychologists have been trying their best to understand how parenting works with upbringing and how it can affect a child’s behavior. Whether we like it or not, our parenting styles can affect our child’s social, mental, and emotional growth.
Developmental psychologists have been working specifically in this field of study and have found some astonishing facts. Finding the actual cause of a specific problem or behavior pattern can be quite hard but a lot of things can be ascertained through these studies on parenting styles.
The behavior of siblings can also be quite different from each other even though they are raised in the same household and yet can carry some similarities as well. Even though there are such dramatic differences, researchers have long suggested that there is an underlying pattern that we need to understand and accept.
Yes, you guessed it! Parenting Styles and its impact on a child’s growth and well-being.
In this article, I am going to talk about the 4 types of parenting styles and what imprints they can leave on a child’s behavior and development as they age into adulthood. Let’s have a look!
The 4 Parenting Styles And Their Impact:
In the 1990s, Diana Baumrind, a psychologist, conducted a study on the behaviors of children (especially toddlers) and their upbringing by their parents or primary caregivers. She then established that there are some differences between parenting styles. The study, conducted under guided patterns of strictness, parental approach, warmth or empathy in parents, communication styles, decision-making maturity, authority, and nurturing, concluded that parenting styles can be broadly classified into three categories:
However, later Maccoby and Martin, researchers on the same subject, established that there is another parenting style and termed that;
Do all these 4 parenting styles define a child’s behavior in their later life? Let’s take a look at what are these parenting styles and how it impacts a child.
Also Read: The “Negative Parenting Test” On TikTok
1. Authoritarian Parenting
Under this parenting style, the parents or the guardian act and behave as if they have the sole authority over their children’s decision-making. Similarly to dictatorship and the people living under it. The parents in this parenting style are strict and erect well-established ground rules and any failure on the part of kids results in drastic consequences.
These consequences can be in the form of punishments, more discipline (restrictions), or even penalties. The children cannot question or challenge the authority of the parent(s) and are required to simply obey the rules.
Under the Authoritarian parenting style, parents demand high expectations and beyond from their children. The pressure to study and perform well is constant and when it comes to fulfilling the wants of their children, this responsiveness decreases.
The children are not expected to make errors and expect exceptional results. Authoritarian parents are often found to be punishing their children quite harshly with little to no explanation and they often wonder what their mistake was. The communication between them is minimal and is only done at the time of results or disciplining.
Impact of Authoritarian Parenting:
Authoritarian Parenting often causes children who are strictly disciplined to perform well with clear instructions, be good in academics, and be to the point. However, when it comes to socializing these children (even in adulthood) struggle to communicate openly and often have low self-esteem, confidence, and happiness. Creativity and innovation are also missing when a child is raised under the Authoritarian Parenting Style.
2. Authoritative Parenting
Authoritative Parenting is much like Authoritarian Parenting when it comes to rules, strictness, and guidelines but is far better when communication matters. In this parenting style, parents behave as a government rather than dictators. They are still an authority figure in the child’s life but here the child has their voice and can raise their concerns.
The parents here are sensitive towards their children’s needs and provide feedback and support whenever necessary, they forgive more and don’t concentrate much on the consequences.
They try hard to cooperate with their child rather than using force and want their kid to feel at ease. They are strict but never disregard the opinions of the child and try to always lend an ear. Parents under Authoritative parenting want their children to be socially active, assertive, and not socially awkward.
Impact of Authoritative Parenting:
The Authoritative Parenting Style is considered one of the best approaches when it comes to raising children. Under this parenting style, children develop into adults who are self-regulated, disciplined, responsible, talented, and most importantly, happy.
3. Permissive Parenting
As the term suggests, this parenting style is more casual than the other parenting styles. Parents under the Permissive parenting style don’t usually want to indulge in the decision-making of their children. They try to stay away from the talk and don’t want a heavy discussion.
They keep very low expectations and don’t want to impose such restrictions on the child either. They are open to communication but not in a way that they demand things from the child. These parents are often seen conversing with their children about their life issues and wish to keep it that way.
Under the Permissive parenting style, the parents act more like a friend than a parent. They can be found encouraging the child to speak about their problems but they also don’t put effort into discouraging the child’s bad behavior.
Impact of Permissive Parenting:
A child that is raised with a permissive parenting style is likely to struggle academically and with authority and rules. They might also report having low self-esteem, low confidence, and even low happiness.
4. Uninvolved Parenting
Uninvolved Parenting includes bare minimum communication between parents and children. The parents under the uninvolved parenting style do not have demands and expectations and are no strangers to inattention, non-discipline, non-responsibility, etc. They carry on with their own lives and provide their children with their basic needs such as shelter, food, and clothing.
The material needs of the child are fulfilled but not the emotional or mental needs. The children are left unguided, without rules, discipline, or boundaries. If the kids need something, there is a high chance that the parents are not even aware of it.
Such parents are absentee figures in the child’s life and expect the child to do self-parenting. They don’t devote much (if any) time to being involved in the lives of their children. An uninvolved parenting style means that the parents are neglectful but in some cases, this neglect is not intentional.
Sometimes, the parent(s) mental health issues or substance abuse, for instance, can make it unable for them to be there for the child let alone take care of the child’s mental and emotional needs.
The Impact of Uninvolved Parenting:
So far, one of the least desirable parenting styles among the 4 types of parenting styles is the Uninvolved parenting style. This type of parenting style raises children who have low confidence, low self-esteem, are undisciplined, and are less active. These children (even as adults) get into fights knowing that there won’t be any kind of consequences they need to fear. They also don’t fare well in other aspects of life and are not focused on academics.
The relationship between a parent and a child should be a sacred one. It can either build a world-class leader or a person who just doesn’t care about anything or fear any consequences.
Below is a simple approach that parents can rely on to guide their children i.e. 4Cs of Parenting. Take a look at the figure below and use it as a guide to your parenting!
Final Thoughts On The Types Of Parenting Styles
No parent is perfect and it’s OK. That’s how it’s supposed to be. Sometimes parents can’t be restricted to one parenting style so don’t feel like you’re failing at your parenting and upbringing. You can always learn from one parenting style and adapt to the one you feel your child needs. While it can be hard to remain constant in parenting while balancing work and life, make sure there is no room for guilt.
These 4 types of parenting styles are unique in their way but no one says that they are adaptable. I hope these parenting styles and their impacts on your child’s upbringing can help you.
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Take Care! Happy Parenting!